A summary of the key features, advantages and differences to alternative mask-less lithography techniques is given in the below table.

DPNaLAObDLWcFIBdEBIDeEBLfNFg
Serial writing processyesyesyesyesyesyesyes
10 nm resolution (half-pitch)noyesnonoyesyesyes
mm/s write speednonoyesnonoyesyes
Standard pattern transfer processes (etching, lift-off, electroplating,...)nonoyesnonoyesyes
Direct write process (no development step)yesyesnoyesyesnoyes
In-situ inspection with < 1 nm vertical resolutionnoyesnonononoyes
3D lithography with < 2 nm vertical resolutionnonononononoyes
Closed-Loop Lithography (combined writing + reading)nonononononoyes
Marker free overlay with < 5 nm accuracynonononononoyes
Stitching using the natural surface roughness as markernonononononoyes
Known to damage materials like graphene, nanowires, etc.nononoyesyesyesno
Proximity corrections necessarynonononoyesyesno
UHV and high voltage necessarynononoyesyesyesno
Total costsmedlowmedhighmedhighmed

a DPN: Dip Pen Nanolithography, strength: various bio inks, weaknesses: speed, resolution

b LAO: Local Anodic Oxidation (AFM), strength: direct write, weakness: speed, specific

c DLW: Direct Laser Writing (photoresist), strength: fast, weaknesses: diffraction limited

d FIB: Focussed Ion Beam (Gallium milling), strengths: 3D, all materials, weaknesses: speed, damage

e EBID: Focussed Electron Beam Induced Deposition, strength: high resolution, weakness: speed, material quality, complexity

f EBL: Electron Beam Lithography (HSQ or PMMA), strengths: resolution, well established, weaknesses: proximity effects, wet development

g NF: NanoFrazor Lithography with PPA