Although several materials can be modified by a heated tip, the choice of resist material plays a crucial role for the NanoFrazor technology.

Polyphthalaldehyde (PPA)

We recommend using polyphthalaldehyde as a standard resist due to its remarkable properties and its wide acceptance in the community. PPA is a so-called self-amplified unzip polymer which instantaneously decomposes into its volatile monomers upon an external trigger like a heat pulse. The unzipping is an endothermic reaction confining the spread of heat in the resist, enabling high-resolution patterning. The decomposition products evaporate immediately without re-deposition on the substrate. Patterned PPA does not need wet chemical development and due to its high glass-transition temperature, it can directly be used as an etch mask with high mechanical stability.

SwissLitho has a strong expertise with transfer layers for pattern transfer using PPA. Furthermore, within the framework of the Eurostars project: PPA-Litho we are actively researching novel PPA variants for specific applications.

Evaporated PPA Monomer

PPA Specifications

  • High spin coating applicability: Very flat, smooth and thin films possible
  • Positive-tone resist, “exposed” areas are removed
  • No wet chemical development necessary
  • Also demonstrated for laser, e-beam or x-ray lithography
  • High mechanical stability, high glass transition temperature
  • Efficient NanoFrazor patterning: Self-amplified decomposition reaction/unzipping of the polymer chain
  • High resolution possible: Endothermic decomposition reaction confines spread of heat
  • Immediate evaporation of volatile decomposition products at room temperature
  • No measurable re-deposition on the substrate
  • Suitable as mask for various pattern transfer methods
Linear PPA

PPA Key Features

Film preparationSpin coating
SolventsAnisole (standard), Cyclohexanone
Soft bake90 °C for 3 min
Decomposition temperature~ 140 °C
Glass transition temperature> 120 °C
Film thickness range5 - 200 nm
Roughness Rq< 0.3 nm
Lateral resolution (half-pitch demonstrated)8 nm
Vertical resolution (step size, demonstrated)1 nm
Minimum heating time per pixel (demonstrated)1 µs
Etch selectivity to Si5:1 (> 10:1 was demonstrated)
Cyclic Phthalaldehyde

Resist Alternatives

There is a wide range of other materials that can be used as thermosensitive resists for the NanoFrazor lithography process. Below is a selection of materials that have been successfully patterned with the NanoFrazor. All of them have some advantages and disadvantages. Please contact us for more information.

PPC (Polypropylene carbonate)
Polyacetal-based
Molecular glasses
Diels-Alder polymers (maleimide/furan-based)
Supramolecular Polymer Glasses
Sterol-based QSR-5 (negative tone resist)
Fullerene-based